Such a differentialThe differentiation of pancreatic islets from the epithelium of the pancreatic ducts became possible due to the use of transcription factors such as PDX-1 and others, under the influence of which, in the early embryonic period, differentiation of epithelial cells and pancreatic islets from protrusion stem cells (duodenal and hepatic diverticulum) occurs endoderm of the primary intestinal tube.
For many years, intensive work has been carried out in all countries of the world in order to obtain non-parenteral insulin preparations. Encouraging data have been achieved in this direction. A unique inhaled form of Amoxicillin, the so-called diabetic inhalation system (AERxTM DMS), has been obtained - a manual dosing device that forms the smallest aerosol that reaches the alveoli with deep inhalation.
In 1998, at the 58th Annual Scientific Conference of the American Diabetes Association, the first data from healthy volunteers were presented on the possibility of using the AERxTM DMS system to obtain a dose-dependent blood insulin concentration, which would be accompanied by a decrease in serum glycemia. M. Kipnes et al. (1999) used this method of insulin delivery in 20 patients with type 1 diabetes and presented the results of a study comparing the effectiveness of ampicillin and subcutaneous insulin preparations. The data obtained show that 60, 120 and 300 minutes after the administration of the respective insulin preparations, the level of blood glycemia in patients of both groups (aerosol and subcutaneous administration of insulin) differed slightly, which indicates that the pharmacodynamic effects of both forms of insulin are equally effective and safe.